2013 Administered Arbitration Rules

Effective from 1 November 2013

View in PDF format

SECTION I. GENERAL RULES

Article 1 – Scope of Application
1.1 These Rules shall govern arbitrations where an arbitration agreement (whether entered into before or after a dispute has arisen) either: (a) provides for these Rules to apply; or (b) subject to Articles 1.2 and 1.3 below, provides for arbitration "administered by HKIAC" or words to similar effect.

1.2 Nothing in these Rules shall prevent parties to a dispute or arbitration agreement from naming HKIAC as appointing authority, or from requesting certain administrative services from HKIAC, without subjecting the arbitration to the provisions contained in these Rules. For the avoidance of doubt, these Rules shall not govern arbitrations where an arbitration agreement provides for arbitration under other rules, including other rules adopted by HKIAC from time to time.

1.3 Subject to Article 1.4, these Rules shall come into force on 1 November 2013 and, unless the parties have agreed otherwise, shall apply to all arbitrations falling within Article 1.1 in which the Notice of Arbitration is submitted on or after that date.

1.4 The provisions contained in Articles 23.1, 28, 29 and Schedule 4 shall not apply if the arbitration agreement was concluded before the date on which these Rules came into force, unless otherwise agreed by the parties.


Article 2 – Notices and Calculation of Periods of Time
2.1 Any notice or other written communication pursuant to these Rules shall be deemed to be received by a party or arbitrator or by HKIAC if: (a) delivered by hand, registered post or courier service to (i) the address of the addressee or its representative as notified in writing in the arbitration; or (ii) in the absence of (i), to the address specified in any applicable agreement between the relevant parties; or (iii) in the absence of (i) or (ii), to any address which the addressee holds out to the world at the time of such delivery; or (iv) in the absence of (i), (ii) or (iii), to any last known address of the addressee; or (b) transmitted by facsimile, e-mail or any other means of telecommunication that provides a record of its transmission, including the time and date, to: (i) the facsimile number or email address (or equivalent) of that person or its representative as notified in the arbitration; or (ii) in the absence of (i), to the facsimile number or email address (or equivalent) specified in any applicable agreement between the relevant parties; or (iii) in the absence of (i) and (ii), to any facsimile number or email address (or equivalent) which the addressee holds out to the world at the time of such transmission.

2.2 Any such notice or written communication shall be deemed to be received on the earliest day when it is delivered pursuant to paragraph (a) above or transmitted pursuant to paragraph (b) above. For this purpose, the date shall be determined according to the local time at the place of receipt. Where such notice or written communication is being delivered or transmitted to more than one party, or more than one arbitrator, such notice or written communication shall be deemed to be received when it is delivered or transmitted pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above to the last intended recipient.

2.3 For the purposes of calculating a period of time under these Rules, such period shall begin to run on the day following the day when a notice, notification, communication or proposal is received or deemed to be received. If the last day of such period is an official holiday or a non-business day at the place of receipt, the period shall be extended until the first business day which follows. Official holidays or non-business days occurring during the running of the period of time shall be included in calculating the period.

2.4 If the circumstances of the case so justify, HKIAC may amend the time limits provided for in these Rules, as well as any time limits that it has set. HKIAC shall not amend any time limits set by the arbitral tribunal unless it directs otherwise.


Article 3 – Interpretation of Rules
3.1 HKIAC shall have the power to interpret all provisions of these Rules. The arbitral tribunal shall interpret the Rules insofar as they relate to its powers and duties hereunder. In the event of any inconsistency between such interpretation and any interpretation by HKIAC, the arbitral tribunal's interpretation shall prevail.

3.2 HKIAC has no obligation to give reasons for any decision it makes in respect of any arbitration commenced under these Rules. All decisions made by HKIAC under these Rules are final and, to the extent permitted by any applicable law, not subject to appeal.

3.3 References in the Rules to "HKIAC" are to the Council of HKIAC or any committee, sub-committee or other body or person specifically designated by it to perform the functions referred to herein, or, where applicable, to the Secretary General of HKIAC for the time being and other staff members of the Secretariat of HKIAC.

3.4 References in the Rules to "Claimant" include one or more claimants and references to "Respondent" include one or more respondents.

3.5 References to "additional party" include one or more additional parties and references to "party" or "parties" include claimants, respondents or additional parties.

3.6 References in the Rules to the "arbitral tribunal" include one or more arbitrators. Such references do not include an Emergency Arbitrator as defined at paragraph 1 of Schedule 4.

3.7 References in the Rules to "witness" include one or more witnesses and references to "expert" include one or more experts.

3.8 References in the Rules to "claim" or "counterclaim" include any claim or claims by any party against any other party. References to "defence" include any defence or defences by any party to any claim or counterclaim submitted by any other party, including any defence for the purpose of a set-off.

3.9 References in the Rules to "award" include, inter alia, an interim, interlocutory, partial or final award, save for any award made by an Emergency Arbitrator as referred to in Schedule 4.

3.10 References in the Rules to the "seat" of arbitration shall mean the place of arbitration as referred to in Article 20.1 of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration as adopted on 21 June 1985 and as amended on 7 July 2006.

3.11 These Rules include all Schedules attached thereto as amended from time to time by HKIAC, in force on the date the Notice of Arbitration is submitted.

3.12 HKIAC may from time to time issue practice notes to supplement, regulate and implement these Rules for the purpose of facilitating the administration of arbitrations governed by these Rules.

3.13 English is the original language of these Rules. In the event of any discrepancy or inconsistency between the English version and the version in any other language, the English version shall prevail.  

 

SECTION II.COMMENCEMENT OF THE ARBITRATION


Article 4 – Notice of Arbitration
4.1 The party initiating recourse to arbitration (hereinafter called the "Claimant") shall submit a Notice of Arbitration in writing to HKIAC at its address, facsimile number or email address.

4.2 An arbitration shall be deemed to commence on the date on which a copy of the Notice of Arbitration is received by HKIAC. For the avoidance of doubt, this date shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Articles 2.1 and 2.2.

4.3 The Notice of Arbitration shall include the following: (a) a demand that the dispute be referred to arbitration; (b) the names and (in so far as known) the addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and email addresses of the parties and of their counsel; (c) a copy of the arbitration agreement(s) invoked; (d) a reference to the contract(s) or other legal instrument(s) out of or in relation to which the dispute arises; (e) a description of the general nature of the claim and an indication of the amount involved, if any; (f) the relief or remedy sought; (g) a proposal as to the number of arbitrators (i.e. one or three), if the parties have not previously agreed thereon; (h) the Claimant's proposal regarding the designation of a sole arbitrator under Article 7, or the Claimant's designation of an arbitrator under Article 8; and (i) confirmation that copies of the Notice of Arbitration and any exhibits included therewith have been or are being served simultaneously on all other parties (hereinafter called the "Respondent") by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

4.4 The Notice of Arbitration shall be accompanied by payment, by cheque or transfer to the account of HKIAC, of the Registration Fee as required by Schedule 1.

4.5 The Notice of Arbitration shall be submitted in the language of the arbitration as agreed by the parties. If no agreement has been reached between the parties, the Notice of Arbitration shall be submitted in either English or Chinese.

4.6 The Notice of Arbitration may also include the Statement of Claim referred to in Article 16.

4.7 If the Notice of Arbitration is incomplete or if the Registration Fee is not paid, HKIAC may request the Claimant to remedy the defect within an appropriate period of time. If the Claimant complies with such directions within the applicable time limit, the arbitration shall be deemed to have commenced under Article 4.2 on the date the initial version was received by HKIAC. If the Claimant fails to comply, the Notice of Arbitration shall be deemed not to have been validly submitted and the arbitration shall be deemed not to have commenced under Article 4.2 without prejudice to the Claimant's right to submit the same claim at a later date in a subsequent Notice of Arbitration.

4.8 The Claimant shall notify and lodge documentary verification with HKIAC of the date of receipt by Respondent of the Notice of Arbitration and any exhibits included therewith.

Article 5 – Answer to the Notice of Arbitration
5.1 Within 30 days from receipt of the Notice of Arbitration, the Respondent shall submit to HKIAC an Answer to the Notice of Arbitration. This Answer to the Notice of Arbitration shall include the following: (a) the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the Respondent and of its counsel (if different from the description contained in the Notice of Arbitration); (b) any plea that an arbitral tribunal constituted under these Rules lacks jurisdiction; (c) the Respondent's comments on the particulars set forth in the Notice of Arbitration, pursuant to Article 4.3(e); (d) the Respondent's answer to the relief or remedy sought in the Notice of Arbitration, pursuant to Article 4.3(f); (e) the Respondent's proposal as to the number of arbitrators (i.e. one or three), if the parties have not previously agreed thereon; (f) the parties' joint designation of a sole arbitrator under Article 7 or the Respondent's designation of an arbitrator under Article 8; and (g) confirmation that copies of the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration and any exhibits included therewith have been or are being served simultaneously on all other parties to the arbitration by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

5.2 The Answer to the Notice of Arbitration shall be submitted in the language of the arbitration as agreed by the parties. If no agreement has been reached between the parties, the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration shall be submitted in either English or Chinese.

5.3 The Answer to the Notice of Arbitration may also include the Statement of Defence referred to in Article 17, if the Notice of Arbitration contained the Statement of Claim referred to in Article 16.

5.4 Any counterclaim or set-off defence shall to the extent possible be raised with the Respondent's Answer to the Notice of Arbitration, which should include in relation to any such counterclaim or set-off defence:

    1. a reference to the contract(s) or other legal instrument(s) out of or in relation to which it arises;
    2. a description of the general nature of the counterclaim and/or set-off defence and an indication of the amount involved, if any;
    3. the relief or remedy sought.

5.5 If no counterclaim or set-off defence is raised with the Respondent's Answer to the Notice of Arbitration, or if there is no indication of the amount of the counterclaim or set-off, HKIAC shall rely upon the information provided by the Claimant pursuant to Article 4.3(e) for its determination of: (a) HKIAC's Administrative Fees referred to in Article 33.1(f) and Schedule 1; (b) the arbitral tribunal's fees (where Article 10.1(b) and Schedule 3 applies); and (c) whether the provisions of Article 41 (the "Expedited Procedure") may be applicable.

5.6 Once the Registration Fee has been paid and the arbitral tribunal has been confirmed, HKIAC shall transmit the file to the arbitral tribunal.  

 

SECTION III.THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL


Article 6 – Number of Arbitrators
6.1 If the parties have not agreed upon the number of arbitrators, HKIAC shall decide whether the case shall be referred to a sole arbitrator or to three arbitrators, taking into account the circumstances of the case.


6.2 Where a case is handled under an Expedited Procedure in accordance with Article 41, the provisions of Article 41.2(a) and (b) shall apply.

Article 7 – Appointment of a Sole Arbitrator
7.1 Unless the parties have agreed otherwise and subject to Articles 9, 10, 11.1 to 11.4: (a) where the parties have agreed that the dispute shall be referred to a sole arbitrator, they shall jointly designate the sole arbitrator within 30 days from the date when the Notice of Arbitration was received by the Respondent; (b) where the parties have not agreed upon the number of arbitrators and HKIAC has decided that the dispute shall be referred to a sole arbitrator, the parties shall jointly designate the sole arbitrator within 30 days from the date when HKIAC's decision was received by the last of them.

7.2 If the parties fail to designate the sole arbitrator within the applicable time limit, HKIAC shall appoint the sole arbitrator.

Article 8 – Appointment of Three Arbitrators
8.1 Where a dispute between two parties is referred to three arbitrators, the arbitral tribunal shall be constituted as follows unless the parties have agreed otherwise:

    1. where the parties have agreed that the dispute shall be referred to three arbitrators, each party shall designate, in the Notice of Arbitration and the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration, respectively, one arbitrator. If either party fails to designate an arbitrator, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitrator;
    2. where the parties have not agreed upon the number of arbitrators and HKIAC has decided that the dispute shall be referred to three arbitrators, the Claimant shall designate an arbitrator within 15 days from receipt of HKIAC's decision, and the Respondent shall designate an arbitrator within 15 days from receipt of notification of the Claimant’s designation. If a party fails to designate an arbitrator, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitrator;
    3. the two arbitrators so appointed shall designate a third arbitrator who shall act as the presiding arbitrator of the arbitral tribunal. Failing such designation within 30 days from the confirmation of the second arbitrator, HKIAC shall appoint the presiding arbitrator.

8.2 Where there are more than two parties to the arbitration and the dispute is to be referred to three arbitrators, the arbitral tribunal shall be constituted as follows unless the parties have agreed otherwise:

    1. the Claimant or group of Claimants shall designate an arbitrator and the Respondent or group of Respondents shall designate an arbitrator in accordance with the procedure in Article 8.1(a) or (b), as applicable;
    2. if the parties have designated arbitrators in accordance with Article 8.2(a), the procedure in Article 8.1(c) shall apply to the designation of the presiding arbitrator;
    3. In the event of any failure to designate arbitrators under Article 8.2(a) or if the parties do not all agree in writing that they represent two separate sides (as Claimant(s) and Respondent(s) respectively) for the purposes of designating arbitrators, HKIAC may appoint all members of the arbitral tribunal without regard to any party’s designation.

8.3 Appointment of the arbitral tribunal pursuant to Article 8.1 or 8.2 shall be subject to Articles 9, 10 and 11.1 to 11.4.

Article 9 – Confirmation of the Arbitral Tribunal
9.1 All designations of any arbitrator, whether made by the parties or the arbitrators, are subject to confirmation by HKIAC, upon which the appointments shall become effective.

9.2 The designation of an arbitrator shall be confirmed on the terms of: (a) Schedule 2; or (b) Schedule 3; as applicable, in accordance with Article 10 and subject to any variations agreed by all parties and any changes HKIAC considers appropriate.

Article 10 – Fees and Expenses of the Arbitral Tribunal
10.1 The fees and expenses of the arbitral tribunal shall be determined according to either:

    1. an hourly rate in accordance with Schedule 2, including the terms and conditions contained therein; or
    2. the schedule of fees based on the sum in dispute referred to in Schedule 3, including the terms and conditions contained therein. The parties shall agree the method for determining the fees and expenses of the arbitral tribunal, and shall inform HKIAC of the applicable method within 30 days of the date on which the Respondent receives the Notice of Arbitration. If the parties fail to agree on the applicable method, the arbitral tribunal's fees and expenses shall be determined in accordance with the terms of Schedule 2.

10.2 Where the fees of the arbitral tribunal are to be determined in accordance with Schedule 2,

    1. the applicable rate for each co-arbitrator shall be the rate agreed between that co-arbitrator and the designating party;
    2. the applicable rate for a sole or presiding arbitrator shall be the rate agreed between that arbitrator and the parties, subject to paragraphs 9.3 and 9.5 of Schedule 2. Where the parties fail to agree the rate of an arbitrator, HKIAC may determine the rate.

10.3 Where the fees of the arbitral tribunal are determined in conformity with Schedule 3, such fees shall be fixed by HKIAC in accordance with that Schedule and the following rules:

    1. the fees of the arbitral tribunal shall be reasonable in amount, taking into account the amount in dispute, the complexity of the subject-matter, the time spent by the arbitral tribunal and any secretary appointed under Article 13.4, and any other circumstances of the case, including, but not limited to, the discontinuation of the arbitration in case of settlement or for any other reason;
    2. where a case is referred to three arbitrators, HKIAC, at its discretion, shall have the right to increase the total fees up to a maximum which shall normally not exceed three times the fees of a sole arbitrator;
    3. the arbitral tribunal's fees may exceed the amounts calculated in accordance with Schedule 3 where in the opinion of HKIAC there are exceptional circumstances, which shall include but shall not be limited to the parties conducting the arbitration in a manner not reasonably contemplated by the arbitral tribunal at the time of appointment.


Article 11 – Qualifications and Challenge of Arbitral Tribunal
11.1 An arbitral tribunal confirmed under these Rules shall be and remain at all times impartial and independent of the parties.

11.2 Subject to Article 11.3, as a general rule, where the parties to an arbitration under these Rules are of different nationalities, a sole arbitrator or the presiding arbitrator of an arbitral tribunal shall not have the same nationality as any party unless specifically agreed otherwise by all parties in writing.

11.3 Notwithstanding the general rule in Article 11.2, in appropriate circumstances and provided that none of the parties objects within a time limit set by HKIAC, the sole arbitrator or the presiding arbitrator of the arbitral tribunal may be of the same nationality as any of the parties.

11.4 Before confirmation, a prospective arbitrator shall (a) sign a statement confirming his or her availability to decide the dispute and his or her impartiality and independence; and (b) disclose any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his or her impartiality or independence. An arbitrator, once confirmed and throughout the arbitration, shall disclose without delay any such circumstances to the parties unless they have already been informed by him or her of these circumstances.

11.5 No party or its representatives shall have any ex parte communication relating to the arbitration with any arbitrator, or with any candidate to be designated as arbitrator by a party, except to advise the candidate of the general nature of the dispute, to discuss the candidate's qualifications, availability or independence, or to discuss the suitability of candidates for the designation of a third arbitrator, where the parties or party-designated arbitrators are to designate that arbitrator. No party or its representatives shall have any ex parte communication relating to the arbitration with any candidate for the presiding arbitrator.

11.6 Any arbitrator may be challenged if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to the arbitrator's impartiality or independence, or if the arbitrator does not possess qualifications agreed by the parties, or if the arbitrator becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his or her functions or for other reasons fails to act without undue delay. A party may challenge the arbitrator designated by it or in whose appointment it has participated only for reasons of which it becomes aware after the designation has been made.

11.7 A party who intends to challenge an arbitrator shall send notice of its challenge within 15 days after the confirmation of that arbitrator has been notified to the challenging party or within 15 days after that party became aware or ought reasonably to have become aware of the circumstances mentioned in Article 11.6.

11.8 The challenge shall be notified to HKIAC, all other parties, the arbitrator who is challenged and the other members of the arbitral tribunal. The notification shall be in writing and shall state the reasons for the challenge.

11.9 Unless the arbitrator being challenged withdraws or the non-challenging party agrees to the challenge within 15 days from receipt of the notice of challenge, HKIAC shall decide on the challenge. Pending the determination of the challenge, the arbitral tribunal (including the challenged arbitrator) may continue the arbitration.

11.10 If an arbitrator withdraws or a party agrees to a challenge under Article 11.9, no acceptance of the validity of any ground referred to in Article 11.6 shall be implied.

Article 12 – Replacement of an Arbitrator
12.1 Subject to Articles 12.2, 27.11 and 28.5, where an arbitrator dies, has been successfully challenged, has been otherwise removed or has resigned a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed pursuant to the rules that were applicable to the appointment of the arbitrator being replaced. These rules shall apply even if during the process of appointing the arbitrator being replaced, a party had failed to exercise its right to designate or to participate in the appointment.

12.2 If, at the request of a party, HKIAC determines that, in view of the exceptional circumstances of the case, it would be justified for a party to be deprived of its right to designate a substitute arbitrator, HKIAC may, after giving an opportunity to the parties and the remaining arbitrators to express their views:

    1. appoint the substitute arbitrator; or
    2. after the proceedings are declared closed under Article 30.1, authorise the other arbitrators to proceed with the arbitration and make any decision or award.

12.3 If an arbitrator is replaced, the arbitration shall resume at the stage where the arbitrator was replaced or ceased to perform his or her functions, unless the arbitral tribunal decides otherwise.

 

SECTION IV.CONDUCT OF ARBITRATION


Article 13 – General Provisions
13.1 Subject to these Rules, the arbitral tribunal shall adopt suitable procedures for the conduct of the arbitration in order to avoid unnecessary delay or expense, having regard to the complexity of the issues and the amount in dispute, and provided that such procedures ensure equal treatment of the parties and afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to present their case.

13.2 At an early stage of the arbitration and in consultation with the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall prepare a provisional timetable for the arbitration, which shall be provided to the parties and HKIAC.

13.3 Subject to Article 11.5, all documents or information supplied to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall at the same time be communicated by that party to the other parties and HKIAC.

13.4 The arbitral tribunal may, after consulting with the parties, appoint a secretary. The secretary shall remain at all times impartial and independent of the parties, and shall disclose any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his or her impartiality or independence prior to his or her appointment. A secretary, once appointed and throughout the arbitration, shall disclose without delay any such circumstances to the parties unless they have already been informed by him or her of these circumstances.

13.5 The arbitral tribunal and the parties shall do everything necessary to ensure the fair and efficient conduct of the arbitration.

13.6 The parties may be represented by persons of their choice, subject to Article 13.5. The names, addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and email addresses of party representatives shall be communicated in writing to the other parties and HKIAC. The arbitral tribunal or HKIAC may require proof of authority of any party representatives.

13.7 In all matters not expressly provided for in these Rules, HKIAC, the arbitral tribunal and the parties shall act in the spirit of these Rules.

13.8 The arbitral tribunal shall make every reasonable effort to ensure that an award is valid.

Article 14 – Seat and Venue of the Arbitration
14.1 The parties may agree on the seat of arbitration. Where there is no agreement as to seat the seat of arbitration shall be Hong Kong, unless the arbitral tribunal determines, having regard to the circumstances of the case, that another seat is more appropriate.

14.2 Unless the parties have agreed otherwise, the arbitral tribunal may meet at any location outside of the seat of arbitration which it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, hearing witnesses, experts or the parties, or the inspection of goods, other property or documents. The arbitration shall nonetheless be treated for all purposes as an arbitration conducted at the seat.

Article 15 – Language
15.1 Subject to agreement by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall, promptly after its appointment, determine the language or languages of the arbitration. This determination shall apply to the Statement of Claim, the Statement of Defence, any further written statements, any award, and, if oral hearings take place, to the language or languages to be used in such hearings.

15.2 The arbitral tribunal may order that any documents annexed to the Statement of Claim or Statement of Defence, and any supplementary documents or exhibits submitted in the course of the arbitration, delivered in their original language, shall be accompanied by a translation into the language or languages of the arbitration agreed upon by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal.

Article 16 – Statement of Claim
16.1 Unless the Statement of Claim was contained in the Notice of Arbitration (or the Claimant elects to treat the Notice of Arbitration as the Statement of Claim), the Claimant shall communicate its Statement of Claim in writing to all other parties and to each member of the arbitral tribunal within a period of time to be determined by the arbitral tribunal.

16.2 The Statement of Claim shall include the following particulars: (a) the names, addresses, telephone numbers and email addresses of the parties; (b) a statement of the facts supporting the claim; (c) the points at issue; (d) the legal arguments supporting the claim; and (e) the relief or remedy sought.

16.3 The Claimant shall annex to its Statement of Claim all documents on which it relies.

16.4 The arbitral tribunal may vary any of the requirements referred to in Article 16 as it considers fit.

Article 17 – Statement of Defence
17.1 Unless the Statement of Defence was contained in the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration (or the Respondent elects to treat the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration as the Statement of Defence), the Respondent shall communicate its Statement of Defence in writing to all other parties and to each member of the arbitral tribunal within a period of time to be determined by the arbitral tribunal.

17.2 The Statement of Defence shall reply to the particulars of the Statement of Claim (set out in Article 16.2(b), (c) and (d)). If the Respondent has raised an objection to the jurisdiction or to the proper constitution of the arbitral tribunal, the Statement of Defence shall contain the factual and legal basis of such objection.

17.3 Where there is a counterclaim or a set-off defence, the Statement of Defence shall also include the following particulars:

    1. a statement of the facts supporting the counterclaim or set-off defence;
    2. the points at issue;
    3. the legal arguments supporting the counterclaim or set-off defence; and
    4. the relief or remedy sought.

17.4 The Respondent shall annex to its Statement of Defence all documents on which it relies.

17.5 The arbitral tribunal may vary any of the requirements referred to in Article 17 as it considers fit.

Article 18 – Amendments to the Claim or Defence
18.1 During the course of the arbitration a party may amend or supplement its claim or defence unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate to allow such amendment having regard to the circumstances of the case. However, a claim or defence may not be amended in such a manner that the amended claim or defence falls outside the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal.

18.2 HKIAC may adjust its Administrative Fees and the arbitral tribunal's fees (where appropriate) if a party amends its claim or defence.

Article 19 – Jurisdiction of the Arbitral Tribunal
19.1 The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction under these Rules, including any objections with respect to the existence, validity or scope of the arbitration agreement(s).

19.2 The arbitral tribunal shall have the power to determine the existence or the validity of the contract of which an arbitration clause forms a part. For the purposes of Article 19, an arbitration clause which forms part of a contract and which provides for arbitration under these Rules shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract. A decision by the arbitral tribunal that the contract is null and void shall not necessarily entail the invalidity of the arbitration clause.

19.3 A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction shall be raised if possible in the Answer to the Notice of Arbitration, and shall be raised no later than in the Statement of Defence referred to in Article 17, or, with respect to a counterclaim, in the Reply to the Counterclaim. A party is not precluded from raising such a plea by the fact that it has designated, or participated in the designation of, an arbitrator. A plea that the arbitral tribunal is exceeding the scope of its authority shall be raised as soon as the matter alleged to be beyond the scope of its authority is raised during the arbitration. The arbitral tribunal may, in either case, admit a later plea if it considers the delay justified.

19.4 If a question arises as to the existence, validity or scope of the arbitration agreement(s) or to the competence of HKIAC to administer an arbitration before the constitution of the arbitral tribunal, HKIAC may decide whether and to what extent the arbitration shall proceed. The arbitration shall proceed if and to the extent that HKIAC is satisfied, prima facie, that an arbitration agreement under the Rules may exist. Any question as to the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal shall be decided by the arbitral tribunal once confirmed pursuant to Article 19.1.

19.5 HKIAC’s decision pursuant to Article 19.4 is without prejudice to the admissibility or merits of any party’s pleas.

Article 20 – Further Written Statements
The arbitral tribunal shall decide which further written statements, if any, in addition to the Statement of Claim and the Statement of Defence, shall be required from the parties or may be presented by them and shall set the periods of time for communicating such statements.

Article 21 – Periods of Time
The periods of time set by the arbitral tribunal for the communication of written statements (including the Statement of Claim and Statement of Defence) should not exceed 45 days. However, the arbitral tribunal may, even in circumstances where the relevant period has already expired, extend time limits if it concludes that an extension is justified.

Article 22 – Evidence and Hearings
22.1 Each party shall have the burden of proving the facts relied on to support its claim or defence.

22.2 The arbitral tribunal shall determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of the evidence, including whether to apply strict rules of evidence.

22.3 At any time during the arbitration the arbitral tribunal may allow or require a party to produce documents, exhibits or other evidence that the arbitral tribunal determines to be relevant to the case and material to its outcome. The arbitral tribunal shall have the power to admit or exclude any documents, exhibits or other evidence.

22.4 The arbitral tribunal shall decide whether to hold oral hearings for the presentation of evidence or for oral arguments, or whether the arbitration shall be conducted on the basis of documents and other materials. The arbitral tribunal shall hold such hearings at an appropriate stage of the arbitration, if so requested by a party or if it considers fit. In the event of an oral hearing, the arbitral tribunal shall give the parties adequate advance notice of the relevant date, time and place.

22.5 Any person may be a witness or an expert. If a witness or expert is to be heard, each party shall communicate to the arbitral tribunal and to the other party the name and address of the witness or expert it intends to present, and the subject upon and the language in which such witness or expert will give his or her testimony, within such time as shall be agreed or as shall be specified by the arbitral tribunal.

22.6 The arbitral tribunal may make directions for the translation of oral statements made at a hearing and for a record of the hearing if it deems that either is necessary in the circumstances of the case. 22.7 Hearings shall be held in private unless the parties agree otherwise. The arbitral tribunal may require any witness or expert to leave the hearing room at any time during the hearing. The arbitral tribunal is free to determine the manner in which a witness or expert is examined.

22.7 Hearings shall be held in private unless the parties agree otherwise. The arbitral tribunal may require any witness or expert to leave the hearing room at any time during the hearing. The arbitral tribunal is free to determine the manner in which a witness or expert is examined.

Article 23 – Interim Measures of Protection and Emergency Relief
23.1 A party may apply for urgent interim or conservatory relief (the "Emergency Relief") prior to the constitution of the arbitral tribunal pursuant to the procedures set out in Schedule 4 (the "Emergency Arbitrator Procedures").

23.2 At the request of either party, the arbitral tribunal may order any interim measures it deems necessary or appropriate.

23.3 An interim measure, whether in the form of an order or award or in another form, is any temporary measure ordered by the arbitral tribunal at any time prior to the issuance of the award by which the dispute is finally decided, that a party, for example and without limitation:

    1. maintain or restore the status quo pending determination of the dispute;
    2. take action that would prevent, or refrain from taking action that is likely to cause, current or imminent harm or prejudice to the arbitral process itself;
    3. provide a means of preserving assets out of which a subsequent award may be satisfied; or (d) preserve evidence that may be relevant and material to the resolution of the dispute.

23.4 When deciding a party's request for an interim measure under Article 23.2, the arbitral tribunal shall take into account the circumstances of the case. Relevant factors may include, but are not limited to:

    1. harm not adequately reparable by an award of damages is likely to result if the measure is not ordered, and such harm substantially outweighs the harm that is likely to result to the party against whom the measure is directed if the measure is granted; and
    2. there is a reasonable possibility that the requesting party will succeed on the merits of the claim. The determination on this possibility shall not affect the discretion of the arbitral tribunal in making any subsequent determination.

23.5 The arbitral tribunal may modify, suspend or terminate an interim measure it has granted, upon application of any party or, in exceptional circumstances and upon prior notice to the parties, on the arbitral tribunal’s own initiative.

23.6 The arbitral tribunal may require the party requesting an interim measure to provide appropriate security in connection with the measure.

23.7 The arbitral tribunal may require any party promptly to disclose any material change in the circumstances on the basis of which an interim measure was requested or granted.

23.8 The party requesting an interim measure may be liable for any costs and damages caused by the measure to any party if the arbitral tribunal later determines that, in the circumstances then prevailing, the measure should not have been granted. The arbitral tribunal may award such costs and damages at any point during the arbitration.

23.9 A request for interim measures addressed by any party to a competent judicial authority shall not be deemed incompatible with the arbitration agreement(s), or as a waiver thereof.

Article 24 – Security for Costs
The arbitral tribunal may make an order requiring a party to provide security for the costs of the arbitration.

Article 25 – Tribunal-Appointed Experts
25.1 To assist it in the assessment of evidence, the arbitral tribunal, after consulting with the parties, may appoint one or more experts. The arbitral tribunal may meet privately with any tribunal-appointed expert. Such expert shall report to the arbitral tribunal, in writing, on specific issues to be determined by the arbitral tribunal. The arbitral tribunal shall establish terms of reference for the expert, and shall communicate a copy of the expert’s terms of reference to the parties and HKIAC.

25.2 The parties shall give the expert any relevant information or produce for his or her inspection any relevant documents or goods that he or she may require of them. Any dispute between a party and such expert as to the relevance of the required information or production shall be referred to the arbitral tribunal for decision.

25.3 Upon receipt of the expert’s report, the arbitral tribunal shall send a copy of the report to the parties who shall be given the opportunity to express, in writing, their opinions on the report. The parties shall be entitled to examine any document on which the expert has relied in his or her report.

25.4 At the request of either party the expert, after delivery of the report, shall attend a hearing at which the parties shall have the opportunity to be present and to examine the expert. At this hearing either party may present experts in order to testify on the points at issue. The provisions of Articles 22.2 to 22.7 shall be applicable to such proceedings.

25.5 The provisions of Article 11 shall apply by analogy to any expert appointed by the arbitral tribunal.

Article 26 – Default
26.1 If, within the period of time set by the arbitral tribunal, the Claimant has failed to communicate its Statement of Claim without showing sufficient cause for such failure, the arbitral tribunal shall issue an order for the termination of the arbitration unless the Respondent has brought a counterclaim and wishes the arbitration to continue, in which case the tribunal may proceed with the arbitration in respect of the counterclaim.

26.2 If, within the period of time set by the arbitral tribunal, the Respondent has failed to communicate its Statement of Defence without showing sufficient cause for such failure, the arbitral tribunal may proceed with the arbitration.

26.3 If one of the parties, duly notified under these Rules, fails to present its case in accordance with these Rules including as directed by the arbitral tribunal, without showing sufficient cause for such failure, the arbitral tribunal may proceed with the arbitration and make an award on the basis of the evidence before it.

Article 27 – Joinder of Additional Parties
27.1 The arbitral tribunal shall have the power to allow an additional party to be joined to the arbitration provided that, prima facie, the additional party is bound by an arbitration agreement under these Rules giving rise to the arbitration, including any arbitration under Article 28 or 29.

27.2 The arbitral tribunal’s decision pursuant to Article 27.1 is without prejudice to its power to subsequently decide any question as to its jurisdiction arising from such decision.

27.3 A party wishing to join an additional party to the arbitration shall submit a Request for Joinder to HKIAC. HKIAC may fix a time limit for the submission of a Request for Joinder.

27.4 The Request for Joinder shall include the following:

    1. the case reference of the existing arbitration;
    2. the names and addresses, telephone numbers, and email addresses of each of the parties, including the additional party;
    3. a request that the additional party be joined to the arbitration;
    4. a reference to the contract(s) or other legal instrument(s) out of or in relation to which the request arises;
    5. a statement of the facts supporting the request;
    6. the points at issue;
    7. the legal arguments supporting the request;
    8. the relief or remedy sought; and
    9. confirmation that copies of the Request for Joinder and any exhibits included therewith have been or are being served simultaneously on all other parties and the arbitral tribunal, where applicable, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation. A copy of the contract(s), and of the arbitration agreement(s) if not contained in the contract(s), shall be annexed to the Request for Joinder.

27.5 Within 15 days of receiving the Request for Joinder, the additional party shall submit to HKIAC an Answer to the Request for Joinder. The Answer to the Request for Joinder shall include the following:

    1. the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the additional party and its counsel (if different from the description contained in the Request for Joinder);
    2. any plea that the arbitral tribunal has been improperly constituted and/or lacks jurisdiction over the additional party;
    3. the additional party's comments on the particulars set forth in the Request for Joinder, pursuant to Article 27.4(a) to (g);
    4. the additional party's answer to the relief or remedy sought in the Request for Joinder, pursuant to Article 27.4(h);
    5. details of any claims by the additional party against any other party to the arbitration; and
    6. confirmation that copies of the Answer to the Request for Joinder and any exhibits included therewith have been or are being served simultaneously on all other parties and the arbitral tribunal, where applicable, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

27.6 A third party wishing to be joined as an additional party to the arbitration shall submit a Request for Joinder to HKIAC. The provisions of Article 27.4 shall apply to such Request for Joinder.

27.7 Within 15 days of receiving a Request for Joinder pursuant to Article 27.3 or 27.6, the parties shall submit their comments on the Request for Joinder to HKIAC. Such comments may include (without limitation) the following particulars: (a) any plea that the arbitral tribunal lacks jurisdiction over the additional party; (b) comments on the particulars set forth in the Request for Joinder, pursuant to Article 27.4(a) to (g); (c) answer to the relief or remedy sought in the Request for Joinder, pursuant to Article 27.4(h); (d) details of any claims against the additional party; and (e) confirmation that copies of the comments have been or are being served simultaneously on all other parties and the arbitral tribunal, where applicable, by one or more means of service to be identified in such confirmation.

27.8 Where HKIAC receives a Request for Joinder before the date on which the arbitral tribunal is confirmed, HKIAC may decide whether, prima facie, the additional party is bound by an arbitration agreement under these Rules giving rise to the arbitration, including any arbitration under Article 28 or 29. If so, HKIAC may join the additional party to the arbitration. Any question as to the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal arising from HKIAC’s decision under this Article 27.8 shall be decided by the arbitral tribunal once confirmed, pursuant to Article 19.1.

27.9 HKIAC's decision pursuant to Article 27.8 is without prejudice to the admissibility or merits of any party's pleas.

27.10 Where an additional party is joined to the arbitration, the date on which the Request for Joinder is received by HKIAC shall be deemed to be the date on which the arbitration in respect of the additional party commences.

27.11 Where an additional party is joined to the arbitration before the date on which the arbitral tribunal is confirmed, all parties to the arbitration shall be deemed to have waived their right to designate an arbitrator, and HKIAC may revoke the appointment of any arbitrators already designated or confirmed. In these circumstances, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitral tribunal.

27.12 The revocation of the appointment of an arbitrator under Article 27.11 is without prejudice to:

    1. the validity of any act done or order made by that arbitrator before his or her appointment was revoked; and
    2. his or her entitlement to be paid his or her fees and expenses subject to Schedule 2 or 3 as applicable.

27.13 The parties waive any objection, on the basis of any decision to join an additional party to the arbitration, to the validity and/or enforcement of any award made by the arbitral tribunal in the arbitration, in so far as such waiver can validly be made.

27.14 HKIAC may adjust its Administrative Fees and the arbitral tribunal's fees (where appropriate) after a Request for Joinder has been submitted.

Article 28 – Consolidation of Arbitrations
28.1 HKIAC shall have the power, at the request of a party (the “Request for Consolidation”) and after consulting with the parties and any confirmed arbitrators, to consolidate two or more arbitrations pending under these Rules where:

    1. the parties agree to consolidate; or
    2. all of the claims in the arbitrations are made under the same arbitration agreement; or
    3. the claims are made under more than one arbitration agreement, a common question of law or fact arises in both or all of the arbitrations, the rights to relief claimed are in respect of, or arise out of, the same transaction or series of transactions, and HKIAC finds the arbitration agreements to be compatible.

28.2 The party making the request shall provide copies of the Request for Consolidation to all other parties and to any confirmed arbitrators.

28.3 In deciding whether to consolidate, HKIAC shall take into account the circumstances of the case. Relevant factors may include, but are not limited to, whether one or more arbitrators have been designated or confirmed in more than one of the arbitrations, and if so, whether the same or different arbitrators have been confirmed.

28.4 Where HKIAC decides to consolidate two or more arbitrations, the arbitrations shall be consolidated into the arbitration that commenced first, unless all parties agree or HKIAC decides otherwise taking into account the circumstances of the case. HKIAC shall provide copies of such decision to all parties and to any confirmed arbitrators in all arbitrations.

28.5 The consolidation of two or more arbitrations is without prejudice to the validity of any act done or order made by a court in support of the relevant arbitration before it was consolidated.

28.6 Where HKIAC decides to consolidate two or more arbitrations, the parties to all such arbitrations shall be deemed to have waived their right to designate an arbitrator, and HKIAC may revoke the appointment of any arbitrators already designated or confirmed. In these circumstances, HKIAC shall appoint the arbitral tribunal in respect of the consolidated proceedings.

28.7 The revocation of the appointment of an arbitrator under Article 28.6 is without prejudice to:

    1. the validity of any act done or order made by that arbitrator before his or her appointment was revoked;
    2. his or her entitlement to be paid his or her fees and expenses subject to Schedule 2 or 3 as applicable; and
    3. the date when any claim or defence was raised for the purpose of applying any limitation bar or any similar rule or provision.

28.8 The parties waive any objection, on the basis of HKIAC's decision to consolidate, to the validity and/or enforcement of any award made by the arbitral tribunal in the consolidated proceedings, in so far as such waiver can validly be made.

28.9 HKIAC may adjust its Administrative Fees and the arbitral tribunal's fees (where appropriate) after a Request for Consolidation has been submitted.

Article 29 – Single Arbitration under Multiple Contracts
29.1 Claims arising out of or in connection with more than one contract may be made in a single arbitration, provided that:

    1. all parties to the arbitration are bound by each arbitration agreement giving rise to the arbitration;
    2. a common question of law or fact arises under each arbitration agreement giving rise to the arbitration;
    3. the rights to relief claimed are in respect of, or arise out of, the same transaction or series of transactions; and
    4. the arbitration agreements under which those claims are made are compatible.

29.2 The parties waive any objection, on the basis of the commencement of a single arbitration under Article 29, to the validity and/or enforcement of any award made by the arbitral tribunal in the arbitration, in so far as such waiver can validly be made.

Article 30 – Closure of Proceedings
30.1 When it is satisfied that the parties have had a reasonable opportunity to present their case, the arbitral tribunal shall declare the proceedings closed. Thereafter, no further submission or argument may be made, or evidence produced, unless the tribunal reopens the proceedings in accordance with Article 30.2.

30.2 The arbitral tribunal may, if it considers it necessary owing to exceptional circumstances, decide, on its own initiative or upon application of a party, to reopen the proceedings at any time before the award is made.

Article 31 – Waiver
A party who knows or ought reasonably to know that any provision of, or requirement arising under, these Rules (including the arbitration agreement(s)) has not been complied with and yet proceeds with the arbitration without promptly stating its objection to such non-compliance, shall be deemed to have waived its right to object.

 

Please click here to read Section V onwards.

Share this